PRINCIPE DE MAQUIAVEL PDF

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The Prince by Niccolo Machiavelli. To the great Lorenzo Di Piero De Medici. Those who try to obtain the favourable attention of a prince are accustomed to come. Read {PDF Epub} Download O PRÍNCIPE by Nicolau Maquiavel from the story Tivemos, nas mãos, algumas traduções da obra de Maquiavel O Príncipe e até. Nicolo Machiavelli was born at Florence on 3rd . He was the second son of Bernardo di Nicolo. Machiavelli, a lawyer of some repute, and of.


Principe De Maquiavel Pdf

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O Príncipe Nicolau Maquiavel Leia o livro, O Príncipe (em italiano, PDF File: O Príncipe Christiani de Erasmo de Roterdã: descreve as maneiras de. o principe de maquiavel pdf. Quote. Postby Just» Sat Mar 2, am. Looking for o principe de maquiavel pdf. Will be grateful for any help! Top. The prince / Niccolo Machiavelli: translated with an introduction by Harvey C. . renzo de' Medici, a prince like the busy executive of our day who has little time.

Adquire fama de intelectual e arguto conselheiro. Lucidez, conciso e lgica de argumentao so virtudes inquestionveis. Como Chanceler em Veneza conhece Csar Borgia, figura temida e de grande determinao e astcia que chama a ateno de Maquiavel pelo seu crescente xito. Cai portanto o governo republicano de Soderini e Maquiavel cassado e preso. Chega a ser torturado. Fica preso 22 dias porm com a asceno do papa Leo X um Medici h uma anistia geral. Isola-se ento em sua propriedade rural e vive em ostracismo poltico.

Sua vida rotineira e simples como ele descreve em uma carta enviado ao amigo Francisco Vetor, a quem confia vrios pedidos de intercesso junto aos Medici para voltar a vida pblica. A obra ento dedicada aos Medici na esperana de ser reconduzido a um emprego publico; porm os tiranos o vem como um republicano.

Somente em lembrado e convidado a escrever sobre Florena. Aps isto os Medici caem novamente e em a repblica restaurada. Adoece e morre neste mesmo ano.

Seus governadores so dspotas sem tradio dinstica ou de direitos contestveis. A crise na estrutura do poder era conseqncia da instabilidade poltica que tinha sua origem na www.

S se mantinha o poder pelas armas e a fora militar italiana era constituda por mercenrios. Isto tornava instvel a conquista e a manuteno do poder. Havia um grande vazio: ausncia de um poder central. Este vazio era ocupado por militares aventureiros condottieri governantes astutos e bem armados.

Conquistavam alguns principados para si e estabeleciam alianas com reis, cardeais e papas. A Europa ocidental era monrquica e os principados italianos, presas fceis.

resenha o principe maquiavel pdf

O cenrio era de total desorganizao poltica, militar e institucional devido ao anacronismo das cidades - estado e pela ausncia de um poder central forte. A igreja, ainda que influente no conseguia dominar os Estados e tambm no encorajava a unificao dos principados, ducados, reinos e repblicas sob o poder de um prncipe secular.

O restante da Europa cresce com o comrcio. Alguns empresrios italianos transferem o centro de deciso de seus negcios para a Inglaterra e Frana. A Itlia estava dividida, como dissemos, em ducados, principados e repblicas, todas rivais entre si.

Neste contexto, a astcia e traio eram freqentes inclusive dentro do clero. Este o cenrio da realidade social poca em que foi escrito O Prncipe. Era a poca do Renascimento e a retomada dos clssico gregos e romanos substitua gradualmente o imobilismo da Idade Mdia carter teocntrico por um dinamismo indicado por uma nova viso do Homem carter antropocntrico.

H uma tentativa da Itlia de viver em paz atravs do Tratado de Lodi que ps fim a guerra entre Milo e Veneza instituindo a Santssima Liga com a participao destes e tambm da Repblica de Florena, do reinado de Npoles e o papado.

Estes cinco principais governos unidos garantem um certo equilbrio poltico por cerca de quarenta anos. Menos enfraquecida a Itlia prospera e lidera o movimento renascentista. A quebra do Tratado se d durante o pontificado de Sisto IV. Em , Florena ento governada por Loureno de Medici se torna hostil a Roma devido a poltica de fortalecimento dos Estados pontifcios.

O papa Sisto IV aceita participar de uma conspirao para derrubar os Medici no sendo informado de todos os detalhes. Na catedral durante uma missa Juliano assassinado e seu irmo Loureno escapa com vida.

Os algozes so presos, enforcados e esquartejados pela multido. Loureno de Medici sai fortalecido. Enfrenta de um lado a hostilidade de Veneza e de outro o papado unido a Npoles. Num gesto poltico audacioso parte sozinho a Npoles para se encontrar com o rei.

Diante da ameaa turca alia-se a Fernando I e desta forma Loureno colhe grande vitria diplomtica sobre o papa. Loureno morre em e seu filho Pedro faz um reinado medocre e condenado ao exlio por ter se entregue covardemente ao rei Carlos VIII da Frana. Carlos VIII entra triunfante em Florena convencido de que um emissrio de Deus enviado para punir e reformar a Igreja conforme os sermes de um frei chamado Savonarola que se torna a personalidade dominante naquele momento.

O novo governo assume uma feio Teocrtica com campanha moralista e religiosa elevada a um grau desconhecido mesmo na Idade Mdia.. Rapidamente entra em choque com o papa Alexandre VI; excomungado e Florena ameaada com um interdito. Savonarola preso pelo governo, torturado e morto em praa pblica. Maquiavel a tudo assiste tirando lies da brusca queda do lder religioso sem armas. Todos os adeptos a Savonarola so demitidos. Aos vinte e nove anos Maquiavel assume o cargo de secretrio na Segunda Chancelaria de Florena.

Participa de muitas misses diplomticas, sendo uma especial: travou conhecimento com Csar Borgia filho do papa Alexandre VI. Em morre Alexandre VI. Csar Borgia preso e liberado mediante pagamento de pesado tributo. Vai para a Espanha onde morre lutando em completo esquecimento.

Jlio II derrota o governo republicano de Soderini e reconduz os Medici ao governo. Comea ento o ostracismo de Maquiavel. O ponto de partida e de chegada a realidade corrente por isto a nfase na verit effetuale ou seja: ver e examinar a realidade como ela e no como se gostaria que fosse.

O que Maquiavel se questiona incessantemente : como fazer reinar a ordem como instaurar um estado estvel como resolver o ciclo de estabilidade e caos. Ele chega a algumas concluses interessantes A ordem deve ser construda para evitar a barbrie.

Uma vez alcanada, no definitiva. Conclui que qualquer que seja o tempo e o espao o homem tem traos humanos imutveis quais sejam: ingratos, volveis, simuladores, covardes e vidos de lucro O Prncipe cap. Destes atributos negativos temos os fundamentos para o conflito e a anarquia. Para Maquiavel o estudo do passado indicar os acontecimentos que se sucedero em qualquer estado e tambm quais os meios empregados para solucionar problemas pela coincidncia ou similaridade.

Os Principados podem ser hereditrios ou novos. Principados mistos: Quando no so inteiramente novos. Maquiavel aconselha que quem adquire um territrio, desejando conserva-lo, deve tomar em considerao duas coisas: UMA, que a estirpe do seu antigo prncipe desaparea; a OUTRA, no alterar as suas leis, nem os seus impostos.

Assim, dentro de um brevssimo tempo, formam um corpo s. Quando o prncipe reside em seu domnio, dificilmente acontece de vir a perde-lo. Outro meio igualmente eficaz e mandar colonizar algumas regies que sejam como chaves do novo Estado. Esta medida e pouco dispendiosa ou nada custa alem de descontentar uns poucos. Apenas aqueles de que se tira os campos para dar aos novos habitantes.

Neste caso, os lesados por ficarem pobres e dispersos, nunca podero acarretar-lhe embaraos Note-se, dizia Maquiavel, que os homens devem ser suprimidos ou lisonjeados, pois se vingam das ofensas leves, mas no podem faze-lo das graves.

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The Prince - Wikipedia ; The Prince is a 16th-century political treatise by the Italian diplomat and political theorist These are easy to enter but difficult to hold. He declared himself ruler with no opposition. So secure was his power that he could afford to absent himself to go off on military campaigns in Africa.

Machiavelli then states that the behavior of Agathocles is not simply virtue, as he says, "Yet one cannot call it virtue to kill one's citizens, betray one's friends, to be without faith, without mercy, without religion; these modes can enable one to acquire empire, but not glory.

Thus, one cannot attribute to fortune or virtue what he achieved without either. After he laid siege to the city and terrified the citizenry, he had then set himself to be ruler of the city. However, in an ironic twist, Oliverotto was killed the same way his opponents were, as Cesare Borgia had him strangled after he invited Oliverotto to a friendly setting.

Machiavelli advises that a prince should carefully calculate all the wicked deeds he needs to do to secure his power, and then execute them all in one stroke, such that he need not commit any more wickedness for the rest of his reign.

o principe nicolau maquiavel pdf printer

In this way, his subjects will slowly forget his cruel deeds and his reputation can recover. Princes who fail to do this, who hesitate in their ruthlessness, find that their problems mushroom over time and they are forced to commit wicked deeds throughout their reign.

Thus they continuously mar their reputations and alienate their people. Gilbert —55 remarks that this chapter is even less traditional than those it follows, not only in its treatment of criminal behavior, but also in the advice to take power from people at a stroke, noting that precisely the opposite had been advised by Aristotle in his Politics 5.

On the other hand, Gilbert shows that another piece of advice in this chapter, to give benefits when it will not appear forced, was traditional. Becoming a prince by the selection of one's fellow citizens Chapter 9 [ edit ] A "civil principality" is one in which a citizen comes to power "not through crime or other intolerable violence", but by the support of his fellow citizens. Machiavelli makes an important distinction between two groups that are present in every city, and have very different appetites driving them: the "great" and the "people".

The "great" wish to oppress and rule the "people", while the "people" wish not to be ruled or oppressed. A principality is not the only outcome possible from these appetites, because it can also lead to either "liberty" or "license". A principality is put into place either by the "great" or the "people" when they have the opportunity to take power, but find resistance from the other side.

They assign a leader who can be popular to the people while the great benefit, or a strong authority defending the people against the great. Machiavelli goes on to say that a prince who obtains power through the support of the nobles has a harder time staying in power than someone who is chosen by the common people; since the former finds himself surrounded by people who consider themselves his equals.

He has to resort to malevolent measures to satisfy the nobles. One cannot by fair dealing, and without injury to others, satisfy the nobles, but you can satisfy the people, for their object is more righteous than that of the nobles, the latter wishing to oppress, while the former only desire not to be oppressed. Also a prince cannot afford to keep the common people hostile as they are larger in number while the nobles smaller.

Therefore the great should be made and unmade every day. There are two types of great people that might be encountered: Those who are bound to the prince. Concerning these it is important to distinguish between two types of obligated great people, those who are rapacious and those who are not.

It is the latter who can and should be honoured. Those who are not bound to the new prince. Once again these need to be divided into two types: those with a weak spirit a prince can make use of them if they are of good counsel and those who shun being bound because of their own ambition these should be watched and feared as enemies. How to win over people depends on circumstances. Machiavelli advises: Do not get frightened in adversity.

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One should make sure that the people need the prince, especially if a time of need should come. How to judge the strength of principalities Chapter 10 [ edit ] The way to judge the strength of a princedom is to see whether it can defend itself, or whether it needs to depend on allies. This does not just mean that the cities should be prepared and the people trained; a prince who is hated is also exposed. Ecclesiastical principates Chapter 11 [ edit ] Leo X : a pope, but also a member of the Medici family.

Machiavelli suggested they should treat the church as a princedom, as the Borgia family had, in order to conquer Italy, and found new modes and orders.

This type of "princedom" refers for example explicitly to the Catholic church, which is of course not traditionally thought of as a princedom. According to Machiavelli, these are relatively easy to maintain, once founded. They do not need to defend themselves militarily, nor to govern their subjects. Machiavelli discusses the recent history of the Church as if it were a princedom that was in competition to conquer Italy against other princes.

He points to factionalism as a historical weak point in the Church, and points to the recent example of the Borgia family as a better strategy which almost worked. He then explicitly proposes that the Medici are now in a position to try the same thing.

Defense and military Chapter 12—14 [ edit ] Having discussed the various types of principalities , Machiavelli turns to the ways a state can attack other territories or defend itself. The two most essential foundations for any state, whether old or new, are sound laws and strong military forces. He should be "armed" with his own arms.

However, a prince that relies solely on fortifications or on the help of others and stands on the defensive is not self-sufficient. If he cannot raise a formidable army, but must rely on defense, he must fortify his city. A well-fortified city is unlikely to be attacked, and if it is, most armies cannot endure an extended siege. However, during a siege a virtuous prince will keep the morale of his subjects high while removing all dissenters. Thus, as long as the city is properly defended and has enough supplies, a wise prince can withstand any siege.

Machiavelli stands strongly against the use of mercenaries , and in this he was innovative, and he also had personal experience in Florence. He believes they are useless to a ruler because they are undisciplined, cowardly, and without any loyalty, being motivated only by money. Machiavelli also warns against using auxiliary forces, troops borrowed from an ally, because if they win, the employer is under their favor and if they lose, he is ruined. Auxiliary forces are more dangerous than mercenary forces because they are united and controlled by capable leaders who may turn against the employer.

The main concern for a prince should be war, or the preparation thereof, not books. Through war a hereditary prince maintains his power or a private citizen rises to power. Machiavelli advises that a prince must frequently hunt in order to keep his body fit and learn the landscape surrounding his kingdom.

Through this, he can best learn how to protect his territory and advance upon others. For intellectual strength, he is advised to study great military men so he may imitate their successes and avoid their mistakes. A prince who is diligent in times of peace will be ready in times of adversity.

However, the advice is far from traditional. A Prince's Duty Concerning Military Matters Chapter 14 [ edit ] Machiavelli believes that a prince's main focus should be on perfecting the art of war. He believes that by taking this profession an aspiring prince will be able to acquire a state, and will be able to maintain what he has gained.

He claims that "being disarmed makes you despised. The two activities Machiavelli recommends practicing to prepare for war are physical and mental.

Physically, he believes rulers should learn the landscape of their territories. Mentally, he encouraged the study of past military events. He also warns against idleness. Machiavelli reasons that since princes come across men who are evil, he should learn how to be as equally evil himself, and use this ability or not according to necessity. Concerning the behavior of a prince toward his subjects, Machiavelli announces that he will depart from what other writers say, and writes: Men have imagined republics and principalities that never really existed at all.

Yet the way men live is so far removed from the way they ought to live that anyone who abandons what is for what should be pursues his downfall rather than his preservation; for a man who strives after goodness in all his acts is sure to come to ruin, since there are so many men who are not good.

Since there are many possible qualities that a prince can be said to possess, he must not be overly concerned about having all the good ones. Also, a prince may be perceived to be merciful, faithful, humane, frank, and religious, but most important is only to seem to have these qualities. A prince cannot truly have these qualities because at times it is necessary to act against them.

In fact, he must sometimes deliberately choose evil.

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Although a bad reputation should be avoided, it is sometimes necessary to have one. Generosity vs. Additionally, being overly generous is not economical, because eventually all resources will be exhausted. This results in higher taxes, and will bring grief upon the prince. Then, if he decides to discontinue or limit his generosity, he will be labeled as a miser. A wise prince should be willing to be more reputed a miser than be hated for trying to be too generous.

On the other hand: "of what is not yours or your subjects' one can be a bigger giver, as were Cyrus , Caesar , and Alexander , because spending what is someone else's does not take reputation from you but adds it to you; only spending your own hurts you". Cruelty vs. Mercy Chapter 17 [ edit ] Hannibal meeting Scipio Africanus. Machiavelli describes Hannibal as having the " virtue " of "inhuman cruelty".The kind that does not understand for itself, nor through others — which is useless to have.

O que Maquiavel se questiona incessantemente : como fazer reinar a ordem como instaurar um estado estvel como resolver o ciclo de estabilidade e caos. Para um prncipe ser considerado liberal, generoso bom, todavia ser parcimonioso um dos vcios que fazem reinar.

Maquiavel estava inserido no contexto do Renascimento italiano e viveu. Machiavelli compares fortune to a torrential river that cannot be easily controlled during flooding season.

Mentally, he encouraged the study of past military events.